Some vitamins are synthesized in the body, but most come from food. It is especially important to monitor the vitamin balance of the elderly. In old age, for example, circulatory disorders are often observed, as a result of which the transition of vitamps from blood to tissues and organs worsens. Often during this period, violations of the gastrointestinal tract and liver are observed, which leads to poor absorption of vitamins. Therefore, older people need to eat more vitamin-containing products, with such a cruelty that the body receives increased amounts of vitamins.Vitamins are substances, very small quantities of which are necessary for the normal development and vital functions of the body. They play a paramount role in the metabolism, regulation of the processes of assimilation and use of the main nutrients - proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Vitamins play a huge role in maintaining the normal physiological state of the nervous, cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine systems and blood-forming organs. The use of a sufficient amount of vitamins helps to strengthen the body, increase its performance and resistance to various harmful environmental influences and diseases. The lack of vitamins, on the contrary, leads to a weakening of the body and the development of characteristic diseases - hypo-and vitamin deficiencies, in which the metabolism and most of the functions of the body are disturbed.
The essential norms of many vitamins significantly increase with increased physical work, pregnancy, in cold and very hot climates.
Vegetable products contain most of the vitamins necessary for humans. For many people, herbal products are the main source of body satisfaction in vital vitamins. Moreover, some plants are so rich in certain vitamins that they can serve not only as a means of prophylaxis and treatment of avian vitamin deficiencies, but also be used to treat other diseases in which the use of large amounts of certain vitamin substances is indicated.
Vitamin A (Aceroftol, Retinol)
This vitamin is widely distributed in nature. Oia is found in animal products (fish oil, liver, dairy products, etc.). However, only about half of the daily requirement for vitamin A is covered by these products. The rest is replaced by plant products that contain the carotene pigment, which is converted in the body under the influence of the carotypase enzyme into vitamin A. But carotene (provitamin A) is three times weaker than the latter and, therefore, it must be consumed three times as much. So, if the daily requirement of the body for vitamin A is 1.5 mg, then carotene requires about 4.5 mg. The richest in carotene are fruits and edible parts of the plant, painted in orange-red or green color. A lot of carotene in carrots, red peppers, tomatoes, parsley, raspberries, sorrel, spinach, lettuce, green onions, peaches, apricots, mountain ash, sea buckthorn, wild rose.
Since carogpn and vitamin A are deposited in the body and their accumulated excess amounts can be stored for more than a year, it is advisable to consume more products containing this vitamin in the summer-autumn period. For example, in well-fed people, the reserves of vitamin A in tissues can be consumed within 2-3 legs. The absence or deficiency of vitamin A in food leads to metabolic disturbances and, as a result, to stunted growth, exhaustion, dysfunction of the nervous system, decreased functions of various glands, poorer skin, and reduced resistance to infections. One of the most serious manifestations of vitamin A deficiency is hemerolopia ("night blindness"), which is manifested in a loss of acuity, especially in twilight and darkness.
Therefore, people whose nature of work is associated with visual stress (pilots, drivers, drivers, typesetters, proofreaders, etc.) need increased amounts of vitamin A. As a therapeutic agent, vitamin A is used for diseases of the skin, eyes, liver, infectious diseases, and goiter , atherosclerosis and hypertension.
Vitamin B 1 (thiamine, aneurine)
Thiamine is found in small quantities in many plants, but they are richest in non-wheat germ, rice bran, oat and buckwheat, peanuts, green peas. A lot of it in pork. The daily requirement of an adult in this vitamin is 2-3 mg. Since vitamin B1 is not stored in reserve in the body, oi should be fed regularly with daily food. It should be noted that with increased physical work, during intense heat and the consumption of large amounts of carbohydrate foods, the need for vitamin B1 increases.
This vitamin promotes the growth of the body, has a normalizing effect on gastric motility and acidity of the gastric juice, affects fat metabolism, cardiovascular and nervous systems, and endocrine glands. Insufficiency of vitamin B1 in food leads to incomplete combustion of carbohydrates and the accumulation in the body of products of their intermediate metabolism, which have a particularly harmful effect on the peripheral and central nervous systems.
With a prolonged lack of vitamin B1, a serious illness called “take-take” can develop. In patients, appetite sharply worsens and digestion is upset, weakness, palpitations, dizziness and other painful phenomena appear. Then polyneuritis occurs, accompanied by severe pain and loss of skin sensitivity, especially hands and feet.
In clinical practice, vitamin B1 is widely used in the treatment of diseases of the nervous, cardiovascular and endocrine systems, digestive organs, gout, skin and eye diseases, in surgery and obstetrics.
Vitamin B 2 (Riboflavin)
Riboflavin is found in grpbs, vegetables, cereals, peanuts and many other plants. Of the plant foods, green peas, buckwheat, and wheat bread are the richest in vitamin B2; of animals, meat, liver, kidneys, cow's milk, and eggs. The daily need for it in an adult is 2.5-3.5 mg. It is necessary for the synthesis of protein and fat, normal liver and stomach function, participates in the process of hematopoiesis, affects the growth and development of the fetus, normalizes vision and protects the eyes from the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays.
With a lack of vitamin B2 in a person, the lips, the mucous membrane of the mouth and tongue, which becomes purple and red, become inflamed, cracks and sores appear in the corners of the mouth. There is dermatitis of the face and chest, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyelids and cornea with lacrimation, burning and photophobia. There is a loss of appetite, headaches, a sharp decrease in performance.
As a therapeutic agent, vitamin B2 is used for certain diseases of the digestive system, heart, endocrine system, skin, eye and infectious diseases and in obstetric practice.
Vitamin B 3 (pantothenic acid)
Pantothenic acid is necessary for normal metabolism, affects oxidation processes, promotes the growth of epidermal tissue. It is found in animal and plant products. It is rich in nuts, legumes, potatoes and cereal products. The approximate daily human need for pantothenic acid is 10 mg.
Signs characterizing the lack of intake of this vitamin with food are not exactly identified. Pantothenic acid deficiency during pregnancy is dangerous, which can lead to premature birth, malformations and death of newborns.
Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine)
It is found in significant quantities in many animal products. Vitamin B6 is present in small amounts in plants (legumes, cereals, vegetables, fruits, etc.). Its source is brewer's yeast, wheat, barley, millet, corn, peas, and beans. Especially a lot of it in bananas.
An adult needs to receive 2 mg of vitamin B6 per day. This vitamin is involved in metabolism, primarily proteins and fats, stimulates blood formation, the development of natural immunity to certain diseases, as well as bile secretion and acid-forming function of the stomach.
Pyridoxine deficiency causes convulsive seizures and hypochromic anemia in infants. In adults, loss of appetite, nausea, drowsiness, increased irritability and psychotic reactions, dry dermatitis of the face, head, neck, chest, inflammation of the lips, tongue, conjunctivitis are observed. However, since vitamin B6 is widely found in animal and plant foods, disease-causing effects caused by its shortage are extremely rare. They successfully use this vitamin in the treatment of atherosclerosis, liver, kidney and stomach diseases, tuberculosis, anemia, diseases of the nervous system and some intoxications.
This vitamin is found in very small quantities in animal and plant products. Moreover, it acquires a biologically active form only in the process of digestion. From plant foods, salad, parsley, spinach, beets, potatoes, tomatoes, beans, beans, wheat, rye, baker's and brewer's yeast can serve as a satisfactory source of folic acid. It is due to these products that a large part of the daily requirement of the body for folic acid, which is determined approximately in 2-3 mg, is covered. The missing amount of vitamin A is synthesized in the human intestines by the intestinal flora. Significantly increases the need for this vitamin during pregnancy, childbirth and the development of young children. Of primary importance is folic acid along with vitamin B12 in the process of blood formation of red and white blood. In addition, she is involved in protein and fat metabolism. With malnutrition
(absence or restriction of animal proteins, green vegetables), folic acid deficiency may occur, which entails a disease, manifested, in particular, severe inflammation of the tongue and mucous membrane of the oral cavity, a sharp decrease in the acidity of the gastric juice, diarrhea and a special form of anemia.
Folic acid is used in the treatment of anemia (usually together with vitamin B12), atherosclerosis and some other diseases.
It is found in some animal products and plants. Of the plant products, most of it is found in mushrooms, rice bran, wheat germ, plant seeds, spinach, peanuts. As part of it, it is part of folic acid. It is participation in the synthesis of folic acid that determines its importance for the body. The quantitative need of the body for para-aminobenzoic acid has not been established. As a remedy, it facilitates the course of typhus, protects against arsenic and antimony intoxication with some drugs, its 15 ° / o-ointment is used to protect the skin from sunburn.
Vitamin B 12
This vitamin is found in animal products. In plants, it is practically absent. Vitamin B12 is involved in protein and fat metabolism, improves blood composition.
Vitamin B 15 (pangamic acid)
Vitamin B15 is found in the germinal part of the seeds of many plants and sprouts, in almonds and other kernels of stone fruits. The daily need for it exceeds 2 mg. Pangamic acid activates the exchange of oxygen in tissue cells, stimulates adrenal function, helps restore liver tissue, etc. In recent years, vitamin B15 has been successfully used in the treatment complex for some heart diseases, atherosclerosis, rheumatism and liver diseases, especially those that occur due to chronic alcoholism.
Vitamin H (Biotin)
It is found in peas, soybeans, cauliflower, onions, mushrooms, wallpaper wheat flour and many other products. There is a lot of it in the yolk of a chicken egg, beef liver, boiled kidneys, heart.
The body's need for this vitamin has not been precisely established. In any case, with an average diet, a person receives a sufficient amount of it.
Biotin is involved in the metabolism and, apparently, plays a special role in the metabolic processes of human skin. Deficiency in biotin in adults was observed only during a clinical experiment. In small children, with biotin deficiency, skin inflammation develops with peeling and gray pigmentation on the neck, arms and legs, exacerbation of cutaneous sensitization, inflammation of the tongue, nausea, depression, anemia and cholesterolemia.
This is a vitamin of group B. Significant amounts of it are found in chicken yolk, beef, liver, kidneys, herring, salmon, crayfish, and from plant products - in wheat and wheat germ, oats, barley, soy flour.
The daily need for it in an adult ranges from 250 to 600 mg. Choline is involved in fat in cholesterol metabolism, regulating the deposition of these substances in the tissues of the body. In addition, in the form of acetylcholine (a compound of an ester of acetic acid and choline), it is a mediator in the transmission of nerve impulses in the peripheral nervous system.
With a lack of choline, fatty liver infiltration, necrosis of the liver tissue with subsequent outcome in cirrhosis and even malignant degeneration occur. Sufficient amounts of choline not only prevent, but are also able to eliminate the onset of obesity in the liver. Therefore, choline is used in the prevention and treatment of its diseases. Along with this, choline inhibits the development of atherosclerotic plaques in the walls of the aorta and blood vessels of the heart, which is of great importance in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.
This substance also belongs to B vitamins. In plant products, it is found in the form of phytic acid and its calcium salt - phytin. Most of it is in green peas and dry peas, green beans, melon, oranges, cabbage, onions, pears, tomatoes, carrots. Inositol is also present in animal products.
Inositol is involved in “fat transfer, although its lnpotropic effect is much weaker than that of choline. It also lowers blood cholesterol and thereby reduces the possibility of developing atherosclerosis. The daily dose of inositol required by an adult is supposedly 1 to 1.5 g. There are no signs of this vitamin deficiency in humans.
This vitamin has antirachitic properties. Currently, several substances are known that exhibit similar properties (Px is indicated by vitamins D2, D3, etc.). Vitamin D is found in animal products and only small amounts are found in mushrooms and some higher plants.
Vitamin D deficiency in children leads to rickets. They have abnormalities in the development of teeth and nails, sagging muscles, and abdominal-related enlargement. Sick children are lagging behind in physical and mental development, often suffer from infectious diseases, etc. As a therapeutic agent, vitamin D is used in some skin diseases and convulsive conditions (in case of parathyroid gland dysfunction). At the same time, excessive intake of vitamin D can cause intoxication of the body.
Vitamin E (tocopherol)
Vitamin E is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, has a very high antioxidant activity. It improves the absorption and assimilation of vitamin A, has a stimulating effect on muscle spasm, improves nutrition and blood supply to the muscles of the uterus, which is especially important during pregnancy. In animal experiments, it was found that vitamin E plays an important role in the formation of germ cells and fetal development.
The best plant sources of tocopherol are green beans, green peas, lettuce, oats, wheat, and corn. A lot of it in vegetable oils: sea buckthorn, soy, corn, cotton, sunflower.The daily need for a healthy adult is approximately 20-30 mg. The main depot of vitamin E in the body is adipose tissue, which contains nine tenths of its total amount.
In case of vitamin E deficiency, metabolic disorders and related severe lesions of various organs and systems can occur. As a therapeutic agent, vitamin E is used together with other drugs in some cases of weakened sexual function, with diseases of the neuromuscular system, circulatory disorders, thrombophlebitis and trophic ulcers, diseases of the liver, skin, eyes, as well as atherosclerosis, hypertension, etc.
Vitamin K (phyllochopas)
Several substances are known, referred to as vitamin K. One of them (vitamin K1) is formed in the green parts of plants in chloroplasts due to chlorophyllin, the other (vitamin K2) - in bacteria that live in the human large intestine. In 1942, the substance Vikasol was synthesized, which exceeded the biological activity of vitamins K1 and K2 by 2–3 times.
Vitamin K is rich in plant foods such as spinach, tomatoes, green peas, carrots, parsley, as well as legumes, elaki, and berries.
Vitamin K is necessary for the normal process of blood coagulation. He, in particular, is involved in the formation of prothrombin in the liver. A deficiency in this vitamin can lead to multiple small subcutaneous and intramuscular hemorrhages, and with injuries, life-threatening bleeding. In addition, vitamin K affects the contractile properties of myosin, enhances the contraction and peristalsis of the stomach and intestines, and takes part in the respiration of all cells and intracellular metabolism.
Diseases associated with a lack of vitamin K in food are practically not found, since it is produced by “useful” bacteria in the intestine. However, vitamin K deficiency can still occur in severe diseases of the gallbladder and other diseases, when bile does not enter the intestine and, as a result, the absorption of fats and vitamin K dissolving in them is impaired. A deficiency in vitamin K can sometimes also be associated with intestinal disease, in which its production and absorption occurs.
Newborns who do not yet have vitamin K-producing bacteria in their gut receive it with breast milk. The daily requirement of the newborn in vitamin K is 10-15 mg.
As a therapeutic agent, vitamin K is successfully used for pulmonary and gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhagic diathesis in newborns, in surgical and dental practice, as well as for some diseases of the intestine, liver, lungs.
Vitamin P (rutin, tea catechins)
This is found in vegetables, berries, citrus fruits, tea. The quantitative need for it is not exactly established. This vitamin lowers the increased permeability of the walls of blood vessels caused by various causes. It is prescribed for hemorrhagic diathesis, rheumatism, hypertension, peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, some diseases of the liver and gall bladder, eyes, skin, poisoning and in obstetric practice. Often vitamin P is used in combination with vitamin C.
Vitamin PP (nicotinic acid)
Certain amounts of this vitamin are found in many cereals, legumes, vegetables, and fruits. Animal products are richer in them. Partially, nicotinic acid is also synthesized in the human body from the constituent of the tryptophan dietary protein.
The daily human need for nicotinic acid is 15-20 mg. It is very necessary for the body, since it is part of the enzymes involved in oxidative processes. With a deficiency of this vitamin, a disease can develop in which the appetite worsens, pain in the stomach appears, nausea, diarrhea, severe weakness, worsening of the head. Longer deficiency of vitamin PP leads to pellagra (a word of Italian origin, it translates as “rough skin”). With this disease, severe lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, skin and central nervous system appear, up to the occurrence of serious mental disorders. The origin of pellagra also plays a role in the lack of other vitamins: B1, B2, Wb.Nicotinic acid is used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and some other diseases of the cardiovascular system, respiratory and digestive organs, nervous system, skin, eyes and diabetes mellitus.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
A person provides himself with this vitamin, which is very important for the life of the body, mainly due to plant foods. Black currant, rosehip, mountain ash, sea buckthorn, gooseberries, wild strawberries, oranges, lemons and many other berries and fruits are rich in vitamin C, and from vegetables - green and red peppers, green onions, horseradish, parsley, dill, sprat, tomatoes and some others plants. Ascorbic acid is involved in the exchange of nucleic acids, the exchange and synthesis of steroid hormones of the adrenal cortex and thyroid gland, takes part in the oxidation of a number of amino acids and the synthesis of many substances necessary for the construction of connective and bone tissue. Vitamin C provides the normal permeability of capillaries, increases the elasticity and strength of blood vessels.It plays a major role in maintaining the body's natural and acquired resistance to infectious diseases.
Chronic vitamin C deficiency can lead to scurvy. With this disease, weakness, lethargy, depressed mood, and muscle pain first appear. Then the gums begin to loosen and bleed, teeth become loose and fall out, multiple hemorrhages occur in the skin, muscles, joints, internal organs. Anemia develops, the activity of the cardiovascular and other body systems is disrupted.
Currently, scurvy is rare. More often, doctors have to deal with less pronounced, so to speak, latent forms of vitamin C deficiency. In such cases, working capacity decreases, apathy, fatigue appears, resistance to toxic substances, to the effects of high and low temperature decrease, a person becomes more prone to colds, griopas and other infectious diseases, his wounds and bone fractures do not heal well. Vitamin C deficiency leads to a change in the vascular wall and thereby creates favorable conditions for the development of atherosclerosis (especially in people with excess nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle)
To avoid C-vitamin deficiency, it is necessary to consume a sufficient amount of plant products - natural sources of ascorbic acid, and in the winter-spring period, when the vitamin C content in them is significantly reduced, you can take additional dragees with synthetic ascorbic acid. On average, an adult needs about 70 mg of vitamin C per day, children under 7 years old need only 50 mg. With hard physical work, pregnancy and for lactating women, the dose rises to 100-120 mg. For people living in the Far North or in areas with a hot climate, the need for ascorbic acid increases by 30-50%, and sometimes by 100%. As a therapeutic agent, vitamin C is widely used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, various diseases of the cardiovascular system, respiratory organs, kidneys, liver, endocrine in the nervous systems, diseases of the blood, joints,tuberculosis, poisoning with chemical poisons, in obstetrics and surgery.
Vitamin F is an unsaturated fatty acid - linoleic, lpnolenovoy and arachidonic, which are found in vegetable edible oils (sunflower, corn, nut, soy, cotton, olive, flaxseed, etc.) and animal fats. The daily dose of vitamin F for an adult is determined at about 1-2 g. Usually it is recommended to consume 20-30 g of vegetable oil containing this vitamin every day.
Unsaturated fatty acids contribute to the absorption of fats, are involved in the fat metabolism of the skin, affect the processes of lactation and reproduction. Vitamin F converts cholesterol into soluble compounds and thereby facilitates its removal from the body. Due to this, unsaturated fatty acids are used for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. In addition, they find application in the treatment of certain skin diseases (eczema, ulcerative lesions, etc.).
In 1949, it was discovered that fresh juices of some vegetables, including cabbage, have the property of inhibiting the development of experimental stomach ulcers in experimental laboratory animals. Since the antiulcer factor contained in the juice of cabbage and other plants belongs to nutrients, it was assigned to vitamins. From the Latin word ulcus, which means “ulcer”, it was called vitamin U. The work that appeared after the discovery of this vitamin established the significant effectiveness of cabbage juice and some other vegetables in the treatment of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. In many patients, painful events passed quite quickly and ulcerative scarring occurred. It has been suggested that the antiulcer effect of cabbage juice is due to the presence of significant amounts of methylmethioinsulfonium in cabbage,also found in many other vegetables, fruits, cereals, fresh milk, raw egg yolks, some animal and vegetable fats.
However, many biological studies and clinical observations of patients have shown that the use of pure megplotnoninsulfonium is less effective than the effect of cabbage juice. Apparently, the antiulcer effect of the juice is determined not only by this substance. It was found that the content of vitamin U in plants depends on the conditions and place of their cultivation, the time of harvest, the method of preservation and storage. For example, in southern regions, where there are many sunny days, vegetables contain significantly more vitamin U. This vitamin is easily oxidized and destroyed under the influence of high temperature, but at the same time tolerates drying and cooling.