The introduction of food additives in food products according to their technological purpose can be aimed at:
• improving the appearance and organoleptic properties of the food product;
• maintaining the quality of the product during its storage;
• acceleration of the timing of food production.
In accordance with the technological purpose, niche additives, in turn, could be grouped as follows:
A. Nutritional supplements that provide the necessary appearance and organoleptic properties of the product, including, in turn:
• improve consistency,
• food colorings,
• flavoring substances.
B. Food additives that prevent microbial or oxidative spoilage of products (preservatives):
• antimicrobial agents:
• antioxidants (antioxidants) that prevent chemical spoilage of the product (oxidation).
B. Nutritional supplements needed in the food manufacturing process:
• process accelerators,
• myoglobin fixatives,
• technological food additives, such as: tssga disintegrants, gelling agents, foaming agents, bleaches and lr.
G. Food quality enhancers.
The Codex Alimentaris Commission identifies a number of functional classes of food additives, their definitions (definitions) and subclasses (technological functions), which are given in the table below.
|Functional classes (for marking purposes)||Definitions||Subclasses (technological functions)|
|one||Acids (Acid)||Increase acidity and / or give a sour taste to food||Acidifier|
|2||Acidity regulator||Alter or regulate the acidity or alkalinity of a food product||Acids, alkalis, bases, buffer, pH regulators|
|3||Anti-caking and clumping agents (Anicakiog agent)||Reduce the tendency of food particles to adhere to each other||Hardening additives, tackifiers, drying additives, powders, separators|
|four||Antifoam agents (Antifoaming agent)||Prevent or reduce foam formation||Defoamers|
|5||Antioxidants (Antioxidant)||Increase food shelf life by protecting against spoilage caused by oxidation, such as rancidity of fats or discoloration||Antioxidants, synergists of antioxidants, complexing agents, antioxidants|
|6||Fillers (Bulking agent)||Substances other than water or air that increase the volume of a product without significantly affecting its energy value||Fillers|
|7||Dyes (Color)||Enhance or restore product color||Dyes|
|8||Color retention agent||Stabilize, maintain or enhance the color of the product||Color fixers, color stabilizers|
|9||Emulsifiers||Form or maintain a homogeneous mixture of two or more immiscible phases, such as oil and water in foods||Emulsifiers, emollients, dispersants, surfactants, wetting agents|
|10||Emulsifying salt||Interact with cheese proteins to prevent the separation of fat in the manufacture of processed cheese||Melting salts, complexing agents|
|eleven||Sealers (plant tissue) (Firming agent)||Make or keep the tissues of fruits and vegetables firm and fresh, interact with gelling agents to form a gel or strengthen the gel||Sealers (plant tissue)|
|12||Amplifiers of taste and smell (Flavor enhancer)||Enhances the natural taste and / or smell of food products||Taste enhancers, flavor modifiers, boiling aid additives|
|13||Flour treatment agent||Substances added to flour to improve its baking quality or color||Whitening additives, dough improvers, flour improvers|
|fourteen||Foaming agents (Foaming agent)||They create conditions for uniform diffusion of the gaseous phase into liquid and solid food products.||Whipping additives, aeration additives|
|fifteen||Gelatin and (Gelling agent)||Food texture by gel formation||Jelly formers|
|16||Glazers (Glazing agent)||Substances which, when lubricated with the outer surface of the product, give a shiny appearance or form a protective layer||Film formers polishing substances|
|17||Water Retention Agents (Humectant)||Protects food from drying out by neutralizing the influence of atmospheric air with low humidity||Moisture / Water Retainants, Wetting Agents|
|eighteen||Preservative||Increase shelf life of products, protecting against spoilage caused by microorganisms||Antimicrobial and antifungal additives, additives for combating bacteriophages, chemical sterilizing additives for wine aging, disinfectants|
|19||Prepellants (Propellant)||Gas other than air pushing a product out of a container||Propellants|
|twenty||Baking powder (Raising agent)||Substances or a combination of substances that release gas and thus increase the volume of dough||Baking powder, substances that contribute to the vital activity of yeast|
|21||Stabilizers||Allows you to maintain a homogeneous mixture of two or more immiscible substances in a food product or finished food||Binders, sealants, moisture and water-retaining substances, foam stabilizers|
|22||Sweeteners||Substances of a non-sugar nature, which give a sweet taste to food products and prepared foods||Sweeteners, Artificial Sweeteners|
|23||Thickeners (Thickener)||Increase food viscosity||Thickeners, texturators|